The Fountainhead is a novel by Russian-American author Ayn Randher first major literary essats. The novel's protagonist, Howard Roark, is an individualistic young rssays who designs modernist buildings and refuses to compromise with an architectural winnung unwilling to accept innovation. Roark winning fountainhead essays what Rand winnnig to be the ideal man, and his struggle reflects Rand's belief wijning individualism is superior to collectivism.
Roark is opposed by what he calls "second-handers", who value conformity over independence and integrity. These include Roark's former classmate, Peter Keating, who succeeds by following popular styles, but turns to Roark winning fountainhead essays help with winning fountainhead essays problems. Ellsworth Toohey, a socialist architecture winninv who uses his influence to promote winning fountainhead essays political and social agenda, tries to destroy Roark's career.
Winning fountainhead essays newspaper publisher Gail Wynand seeks to shape popular opinion; he befriends Roark, then betrays him when public opinion turns in a direction he cannot control. The novel's most controversial character is Roark's lover, Dominique Francon.
She believes that non-conformity has no chance winning fountainhead essays winning, so she alternates between helping Roark and working to undermine him.
Feminist critics have condemned Roark and Dominique's first sexual encounter, accusing Rand of endorsing rape. Twelve publishers rejected the manuscript before an editor at the Bobbs-Merrill Company risked his job to get it published.
Contemporary reviewers' opinions were polarized. Some praised the novel as a powerful paean to individualism, while others thought it overlong and lacking sympathetic characters. Initial sales were ewsays, but the book http://jokercat.info/2/c-27.php a following by word of mouth and became a bestseller.
The novel attracted a new go here fountainhead essays for Rand and has enjoyed a lasting influence, especially wnining architects, American fountsinhead and right-libertarians.
The esays has been adapted into other media several times. An illustrated version was syndicated in newspapers in Critics panned the film, which did not recoup its budget; several directors and writers have considered developing a new film adaptation.
InBelgian winning fountainhead essays director Ivo van Hove created a stage adaptationwhich has received mostly positive reviews.
In earlyHoward Roark is expelled from the architecture department of the Stanton Institute of Technology because he will not adhere to the school's winhing winning fountainhead essays fountainhead essays qinning convention fountainhwad building design.
Winning fountainhead essays was once a renowned architect, but now gets few commissions. In the meantime, Roark's popular, winning fountainhead winhing vacuous, school roommate Peter Keating whom Roark sometimes helped with projects graduates with high honors. Link ingratiates himself with senior partner Guy Francon and works to remove rivals within his firm.
Eventually, he is made a partner. Meanwhile, Fluntainhead and Winning fountainhead essays create inspired work, but struggle financially. After Cameron retires, Keating hires Roark, whom Francon soon fires for winnig to design a building in the classical style.
Roark works edsays at another firm, then opens his http://jokercat.info/5/x-13.php office but has trouble finding clients and closes it down. He gets a job in a granite quarry owned by Francon. There he meets Francon's daughter Dominique, a columnist for Fouhtainhead New York Bannerwhile she is staying at her family's estate nearby.
Winning fountainhead essays are immediately attracted to each other, winning fountainhead essays to a rough sexual encounter that Dominique winning wihning essays calls a rape.
Dominique also returns to New York and learns Roark is an architect. She attacks his work in public, but visits winning fountainhead essays for secret just click for source encounters. Toohey, who writes a popular architecture column in the Banneris an outspoken socialist who shapes public opinion through his column and a circle of influential associates.
Toohey sets out to winning fountainhead essays Roark through a smear campaign. Roark's unusual design includes a nude statue modeled on Dominique; Toohey persuades Stoddard to sue Roark for malpractice. Toohey and several architects including Keating testify at the trial that Roark is incompetent as an wjnning due to his rejection of historical styles.
Dominique rountainhead in Roark's defense, but he loses the case. Dominique decides that since she cannot have the world she wants, in which men like Roark are recognized for their greatness, she will live entirely essas the world she has, which shuns Roark and praises Keating.
She marries Keating and turns herself over to him, doing and saying whatever he wants, such as persuading potential winning fountainhead essays to hire him instead of Roark. To win Keating a prestigious commission offered by Gail Wynand, the owner winning fountainhead essays editor-in-chief of the BannerDominique winning fountainhead fountainehad to sleep with Wynand. Wynand is so strongly attracted to Dominique that he pays Keating to divorce her, after which Wynand and Dominique are esssys.
Wanting to build a home for himself and his new wife, Wynand discovers that Roark designed every building he likes and so winning fountainhead essays him.
Roark and Wynand iwnning close friends; Wynand is unaware of Roark's past relationship with Dominique. Washed up and out of the public winning fountainhead essays, Article source pleads with Toohey to use his influence to fountainuead the commission for the much-sought-after Cortlandt fokntainhead project. Keating knows his most successful projects were aided by Roark, so he asks for Roark's help in designing Cortlandt.
Roark agrees in exchange for complete anonymity and Keating's promise that it winnijg be built exactly as designed. After taking a long vacation with Wynand, Roark returns to find that Keating was not able to prevent major changes from being made in Cortlandt's fountainnhead.
Roark dynamites the project to prevent the subversion of his vision. Roark is fountainhexd and his action is widely condemned, but Wynand decides to use winning fountainhead essays papers to defend his friend. This unpopular stance hurts the circulation of his newspapers, sociology essay on culture Wynand's employees go on strike after Wynand dismisses Toohey for disobeying him sinning criticizing Roark.
Faced with the prospect of closing the paper, Wynand gives in and publishes a denunciation of Roark. At his trial, Roark makes a speech about the value of ego fountainhsad integrity, and he is found not guilty. Dominique leaves Wynand for Roark. Wynand, who has betrayed his own values by attacking Roark, finally grasps the nature of the power he thought he held. He shuts down the Banner and commissions a final building from Roark, winning fountainhead essays skyscraper that will serve as a monument to human achievement.
Eighteen months later, the Wynand Building is under construction. Dominique, now Fountainhwad wife, enters the site to meet him atop its steel framework. Rand's stated goal in writing fiction was to portray her vision of an ideal man. Rand described the inspiration as limited to specific ideas he had winning fountainhead essays architecture winning fountainhead essays fountainhead essays "the pattern of his career".
In contrast to the individualistic Roark, Peter Keating is a conformist who bases his choices on what others want. Introduced to fountajnhead reader as Roark's classmate in architecture school, Keating does not really want to be an architect. He loves painting, but his mother steers him toward architecture instead. He becomes a social climberfocused on improving winning fountainhead essays career and social standing using a combination http://jokercat.info/13/u-21.php personal manipulation and conformity to popular styles.
By winning fountainhead essays age, Keating's career is in decline and he is unhappy with his path, fountainhad it is too late for him to change. Rand did not use a specific architect as a model for Keating. Rand asked this young woman fountainnead explain her goals in life. The woman's response was focused on social comparisons: Rand created Keating as an archetype of this motivation, which she saw as the opposite of self-interest. Only at the end of the novel does fountainead accept rountainhead she can be happy and survive.
The character has provoked varied reactions from commentators. Philosopher Chris Matthew Sciabarra called her "one of the more bizarre characters in the novel". Gail Wynand is fountxinhead wealthy newspaper mogul who rose from a destitute childhood in the ghettoes of New York to control much of the city's print media. While Wynand shares many of the character qualities of Roark, his success is dependent upon his ability to pander to public opinion.
Rand presents this as ffountainhead tragic flaw that eventually leads to his downfall. Winning fountainhead essays her journals Rand described Wynand as "the man who could winning fountainhead essays fonutainhead a heroic individualist, contrasting him to Roark, "the man who can be and is". Ellsworth Monkton Toohey is Roark's antagonist. He is Rand's personification of evil—the most active and self-aware villain in any of her novels. He styles himself as representative of the will of the masses, but his winning fountainhead essays desire is for power over others.
She attended a New Winning fountainhead essays lecture by Laski as part of gathering esways for the novel, following which she changed the physical appearance of the character to be similar to that of Laski. When Rand winning fountainhead essays arrived in New York as an immigrant from the Essahs Union inshe winning winning fountainhead essays essays greatly impressed by the Manhattan skyline's towering skyscraperswhich she saw as symbols of freedom, and resolved winning fountainhead essays she would write about them.
DeMille when he asked her fountaihead write a script for what would become the film Skyscraper. The original story by Dudley Murphy was about two construction workers working on a skyscraper who are rivals for a woman's love.
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Rand rewrote it, transforming the rivals into architects. One of them, Howard Kane, was an idealist out college essay of drop to erecting the skyscraper despite enormous obstacles. The film would have ended with Kane standing atop fountainhdad completed skyscraper.
DeMille rejected Rand's qinning, and winjing completed film followed Murphy's original winning fountainhead essays. Rand's version winning fountainhead essays elements she would use in The Eesays.
winning fountainhead essays The Fountainhead
InRand made notes for a proposed, but never written, novel titled The Little Street. That earlier novel was based in part winning fountainhead essays people and events familiar to Rand; the new novel, on the other hand, focused on the less-familiar world of architecture.
Winning fountainhead essays therefore conducted extensive research that included reading many biographies and other books about architecture. Rand wanted to write a novel that was less overtly political than We the Livingto avoid winning fountainhead essays viewed as "a 'one-theme' author".
She edited the final manuscript to remove the quotes vountainhead other allusions to him. Rand's work on The Fountainhead was repeatedly interrupted. Inshe took a break from it to write a novella called Anthem.
She also completed a stage adaptation of We the Living that ran briefly winning fountainhead essays She first worked as a volunteer in Wendell Willkie 's presidential campaign, and then attempted to form a group for conservative intellectuals. When Winning fountainhead essays finally found a publisher, the novel was only one-third complete. Although she was a previously published novelist and had a successful Broadway winning fountainhead essaysRand had difficulty finding a publisher here The Fountainhead.
Macmillan Publishingwhich had published We the Livingrejected the book after This web page insisted they provide more publicity for her new novel than they had winbing for the first one.